A disease is any abnormal condition that disrupts the normal function of an organism. This can manifest in various ways, affecting the body’s structure, chemistry, or processes.

An abnormal immune response to substances (allergens) that are typically harmless, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, itching, watery eyes, runny nose, and skin rashes. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, pet dander, certain foods, and insect stings
A condition characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies, chronic diseases, and genetic conditions.
Refers to inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling. There are many types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout, each with its own causes and treatments.
Conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Treatment aims to suppress the immune response and manage symptoms.
Cancer that forms in the cells of the breast, typically starting in the milk ducts or lobules. Early detection through screening mammograms and advancements in treatment have improved survival rates, but breast cancer remains a significant health concern worldwide.
Caused by the varicella-zoster virus, chickenpox presents with an itchy rash of small, fluid-filled blisters. While usually mild in children, it can be more severe in adults and can lead to complications such as pneumonia or bacterial skin infections.
Commonly known as pink eye, conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin layer covering the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, allergens, or irritants, and symptoms include redness, itching, tearing, and discharge.
Variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, exhibit genetic changes that can affect how easily they spread, the severity of illness they cause, and the effectiveness of vaccines and treatments against them. Monitoring and understanding these variants are crucial in managing the ongoing pandemic.
A severe form of acne characterized by deep, inflamed cysts and nodules beneath the skin. Cystic acne can be painful and lead to scarring if not treated properly. It often requires medical intervention, including prescription medications and dermatological procedures.
Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels due to either insufficient insulin production (Type 1 diabetes) or the body's inability to use insulin effectively (Type 2 diabetes). Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, and its proper management is crucial in diabetes treatment.
A common condition characterized by frequent, loose, or watery stools. Diarrhea can be caused by infections, food poisoning, medications, dietary factors, or underlying medical conditions. It often resolves on its own but can lead to dehydration, especially in severe cases.
A broad term encompassing various conditions that affect the heart's structure and function, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects. Risk factors include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the body's immune system, specifically targeting CD4 cells, which play a crucial role in the immune response. If left untreated, HIV can progress to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition characterized by severe immune deficiency and susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancers.
A highly contagious viral respiratory infection causing fever, muscle aches, fatigue, cough, sore throat, and congestion. In severe cases, influenza can lead to pneumonia and even death, particularly in high-risk groups such as young children, the elderly, and those with underlying health conditions.
A highly contagious viral infection characterized by a distinctive rash. Measles can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in young children and immunocompromised individuals.
Migraines are a type of headache characterized by severe throbbing pain, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. They can be debilitating and last for hours or even days, significantly impacting quality of life.
A medical condition characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat, leading to negative effects on health. Obesity increases the risk of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Treatment involves lifestyle modifications, diet, exercise, and in some cases, medication or surgery.
Cancer that develops in the prostate gland, which is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum in men. Symptoms may include difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, erectile dysfunction, and pain in the hips, back, or pelvis. Screening and treatment options vary depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the cancer.
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder characterized by distorted thinking, hallucinations, delusions, and altered perceptions of reality. Dementia refers to a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life, often associated with memory loss and changes in behavior.
Infections involving any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and pelvic pain. UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics.

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